Hydropower: This is one of the cheapest and build-and-forget method. There might be substantial cost of Constructing dams on River, building reservoir and Installing generators that would convert potential and Kinetic Energy of the standing and moving water respectively to run turbine blades that would consequently run the rotor in the permanent or induced Magnetic Field to form Electricity In accordance with the Faraday’s Law of

Electromagnetic Induction. This has one-time high cost of Construction a Dam or reservoir for the storage of the Water at height. This gives it Potential Energy E= mgh, where m= mass of the Water, g = gravitational acceleration of the water = 9.8 m/s2 and h = height of the water above the falling level. When water falls from the controlled outlets or gates of the Dam, its potential energy changes into Kinetic Energy and in this way used to run Blades of the Turbines which in turn are connected to the Shaft of the rotor placed in the Magnetic Field. This movement gives rise to cutting magnetic lines of force, which subsequently induces electromagnetic Force. The Output Voltage Level might be 132KV, 220KV, etc depending upon the different feasibility, and its frequency might be 60Hz, due to conveniences in the Size and choice of Conductor. This voltage is then stepped up for the transmission to the level at which Conductor size is efficient and the losses are minimum due to High Voltages and Low Current giving low P = I2R losses due to low current. Owing to different design considerations and varying currents Magnetic and Capacitive Effects are also taken into account while considering its Transmission. The resistance, inductance, and capacitance of the Transmission line is Distributed, which makes it suitable for Maxwell’s Equations. The solution, handling, and treatment of Maxwell’s Equations is Very difficult, time-consuming and prone to error. These can be simplified to Kirchhoff Current Law and Kirchhoff Voltage Law, KCL and KVL, respectively if we assume that

  • Our Model is lumped-circuit Model, meaning resistance, inductance, and capacitance are not distributed but instead are lumped at a point in the circuit.
  • Changes linking to each other are zero. Chance of Earning Online

In this way, the complex nature of Maxwell’s Equations are simplified into KCL, and KVL, which are really simple Secondary-Education Level manipulations of the complex circuit of the Transmission Line Type.


  1. A.K. Mehta, V.K. Mehta, “Principles of Power Systems”, etc.
  2. Anant. “MIT Electrical Engineering Lectures”, Lecture 01, http://ocw.mit.edu.




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